Scientists at Curtin University have discovered that a crater in Yarrabubba, Western Australia, may be the world’s oldest, and that the asteroid’s landing 2.2 billion years ago may one of the reasons behind the end of the last Ice Age.
Despite the crater itself having been discovered in the outback in 1979, scientist had previously not tested the mineral deposits left behind to determine its age. The crater is not visible to the naked eye due to billions of years of erosion.
To determine when the asteroid hit the earth, scientists tested tiny zircon and monazite crystals found within the rocks whose properties will have changed upon the impact. Tiny amounts of uranium and iron deposits within the crystals enabled the scientists to figure out relatively accurately how long ago the asteroid struck.
Zircon crystal used to date the Yarrabubba impact. Curtin University
The team of scientist are very excited about the age of the crater especially in the context of the Earth’s other events.
At this point, 2.2 billion years ago, the Earth’s surface was covered in ice, and it is now believed that the water vapour produced by this asteroid striking such a thick sheet of ice could be the reason behind a warming effect on the planet, perhaps even ending the Ice Age. Water vapor today is the most abundant greenhouse gas within the Earth’s atmosphere. Without greenhouse gasses, it is estimated that the average temperature of the planet would be -18 degrees Celsius, rather than the 15 degrees Celsius that currently stands. With additional greenhouse gasses entering the atmosphere, the average temperature of the planet is set to continue to rise.
Other theories have suggested that the carbon dioxide, another greenhouse gas, released from volcanic eruptions may be responsible.
Main Image: Barlangi Hill, part of the Yarrabubba crater. Graeme Churchyard, Flickr Creative Commons
New Zealand’s White Island Volcano, known locally as Whakaari, has erupted with a tragic blast leaving 34 people injured, 8 people missing and 6 confirmed dead. The eruption took place at approximately 2:00PM local time on December 9th 2019.
White Island’s volcano is New Zealand’s most active cone volcano, situated off the northeastern coast of New Zealand’s north island, attracting tourists, geologists and volcanologists from afar. The volcano has been releasing volcanic gasses constantly at least since it was first sighted by Captain James Cook 250 years ago in 1769.
In the past, the volcano has had eruptions of Lava, ash and pyroclastic flows, with the most recent significant eruption having been in 2016. In October 2019, the volcano was raised to a Volcanic Alert level 2, stating that there was increased volcanic activity and indicating that an eruption was more likely to occur.
Further seismic activity in the hours following the eruption included subsequent eruptions, and an earthquake at a magnitude of 5.3 in Gisborne, Northeastern New Zealand in the early hours of December 10th. The island is now on Volcanic Alert level 3, with GeoNet stating that the volcano is in minor eruption, but that the alert level could change without notice.
Of the confirmed fatalities, the injured and the missing people, all were either visiting the island as tourists or operating the tours. Pilot Productions extends it’s deepest sympathies and thoughts to all those affected by the eruption.
Study Guide: Volcanoes
Read: Captain Cook continues to inspire travel habits
Main Image: White Island, New Zealand – Volcano, Thru MyShutter, Flickr Creative Commons
By Sofi Summers
A volcano has erupted on the Italian island of Stromboli, killing one hiker and injuring a second. Lava streams and rocks have been slowly making their way down the volcano’s slopes following the eruption yesterday afternoon.
Stromboli has a population of around 500, and its volcano is very active with frequent minor eruptions, making for an adrenaline junky’s paradise. As many as 7000 tourists flock to the island every summer to take in its incredible natural beauty, challenging landscape and Italian Island charm.
Read: Fireworks Night: Trekking Mount Stromboli
Yesterday’s eruption is described as a ‘major eruption’ with two major explosive events occurring. Tourist’s and locals alike have described scenes of people fleeing hotels and restaurants and jumping into the sea in a state of panic.
Read: Study Guide: Volcanoes
The Aeolian Islands, where Stromboli is situated, are a volcanic archipelago in the Tyrrhenian Sea, and are listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site for providing “an outstanding record of volcanic island building and destruction, and ongoing volcanic phenomena”. Stromboli has been in a state of almost continuous eruption for the past 2000 years, its eruptions characterised as short and mild blasts of lava and rock and a slow and viscous flow of lava.
Main Image: Flrnt, Stromboli, Flickr Creative Commons
By Sofi Pickering
December 3, 2014
On the international radar this week is Pico do Fogo volcano in Cape Verde, off the coast of West Africa. Pico do Fogo is the highest peak of Cape Verde, rising to nearly 3000 metres above sea level.
The main cone of this active volcano on the island of Fogo last erupted in 1675, although an eruption causing several deaths occurred in 1847, and a subsidiary vent last erupted in November 1995 – until this week, early December 2014, nineteen years later.
During the week locals have been fleeing the area, carrying what they can and monitoring the situation closely; the Sentinel-1A satellite has been feeding back images to authorities also.
Presenter Zoe Palmer visited the region and actually climbed this volcano!
Main image: Caroline Granycome, Flickr creative commons.