Hoplites were citizen-soldiers of all Ancient Greek city-states. Making up the bulk of ancient Greek armies, they were not professional soldiers, but usually middle-class citizens who could afford to provide their own equipment.
They sported customized armour and weaponry, decorated with family or clan emblems, and passed down in families… large concave shields – or aspis – used the Argive grip, meaning the handle was placed at the edge of the shield, so it could be supported by the forearm and shoulder.
The Corinthian helmet had become standardized due to its successful design, and was often decorated with a horsehair crest.
The main offensive weapon used was a long spear, but Hoplites also usually carried a short sword called a xiphos, in case their spears were broken or lost, capable of being thrust through gaps in an enemy’s shieldwall, to their unprotected groin or throat.